Shoe Sole Types and Materials
The sole of the shoe is one of the most important parts. Because it has to be both durable and flexible. It does not deteriorate against temperature differences; The biggest advantage is that it is resistant to use.
It is obtained from a combination of calf leather and various chemicals. Its disadvantages are that it is affected by water and moisture, and its ability to stick to the ground is limited.
It consists of a combination of compressed plastic, rubber and various chemicals. It has an unbreakable feature. It is also known as artificial welt.
It consists of a mixture of thermo rubber. It has the highest density and the most resistant to temperature.
It consists of poly urethane material. It has high strength.
It is a base made of poly vinyl chloride. It can be given different colors and shine with various finishing processes.
THERMO POLY URETHANE:
It consists of a combination of poly urethane and thermo rubber with a special injection system. It is light and has non-slip properties.
It is produced with natural rubber and latex. It is the sole with the highest elasticity and comfort. It should be preferred especially for daily sports and walking shoes.
It is produced from the lowest density poly urethane material. Light weight is its biggest advantage.
The heel can be completely manufactured on the sole, as well as a part attached to the sole with screws and / or nails during the shoe manufacturing phase. It happens in various types and heights according to the style of the shoe. Heel height is expressed in PONT. A pont is approximately 7 mm.
It is located between the sole and the mostra, and ensures that the sole conforms to the shape of the foot and maintains its form. It is the most important part that provides orthopedics, with a specially mixed plastic and steel support inside.
Some Technical Terms in Upper Production
It is obtained from tanning (processing) of cattle, calf and horse hides with chrome salts. It is especially used in winter shoes, military boots, fancy slippers and most of the women shoes.
The skin is matte, thick screwed. It has very little water permeability compared to screw. It is used in winter shoes and boots.
It is obtained by tanning goat skins with chrome salts in various methods. Glaces are used on the uppers of Quality women shoes, roller shoes (without laces), women boots and slippers.
It is obtained from the skins of large and small animals. They are very shiny soft leathers that are finished with oily or synthetic lacquers.
It is obtained by tanning the skins of young cattle, veal, goat, sheep or lamb with chrome salt.
It is the leather taken from the skin by splitting from the leather layer towards the flesh side.
Its skin is sanded leather. Nubuck is short-haired and tougher than suede.
Lame and Dore:
Lame, metallic silver, gold, metallic yellow dyed finished leathers. Both types of leathers are mainly used in fancy women shoes.
It is processed more freshly and tough. Pores are not as prominent as Glase skin.
Sheepskin is generally used. It is very thin and flexible and is used for clothing.
The grain part of the leather is sanded and covered with paint. It has a very bright finishing.
They are completely natural or dyed leather processed with herbal tannins. It is used in making accessories. Its color becomes darker during use.
After the upper membrane is removed, the upper layer of the skin is prepared on metal plates and the leather is pressed at high pressure and temperature.
It is used on soles, heels and sandals. Cork powder, rubber mixture, very light and thermal.
Shoe Inner Surface "Lining - Insole"
It has duties such as being a protective buffer layer between the foot and the upper, ensuring the shape of the shoe, removing the moisture of the foot, and shaping the inner appearance of the shoe. Lining is used on the mirror (front), side (gamba) and the ground (outcrop) of the foot.
They are thin, soft, elastic and smooth skins, dyed in natural colors, obtained from the tanning of raw sheep skins by various methods.
Lining leathers obtained from goat leathers are called glase as lining, those obtained from sheep are called buff, and those made from calf leather are called calf lining.
Artificial Materials Used in Shoes
The artificial material used as the outsole and lining on the uppers of shoes is produced from two types of materials as PVC and PU coating.
The place of use is determined according to the types of artificial materials on the sole. Floor types; It is divided into two main groups as woven and non-woven. Coating is made on this sole by methods such as coagulation, plastering, spraying.
Textile Materials Used in Shoes
They are textile materials used on the upper and lining of the shoes.
These materials produced as fabric are used according to the style of the shoes and fashion. The fabrics are reinforced with reinforcement material to achieve the necessary strength. Sometimes fabrics are used to reinforce other leather and artificial material.
It is a sponge placed under the inoculum. It makes it suitable for foot orthopedics. Special flexible foam porous pillows are used in children's shoes, which are gentle areas where the foot completes its development, under the heel and in the middle of the foot.
It is a reinforcement piece placed between the upper and lining in order to keep the back of the shoe upright and maintain its form.
It is placed to protect the form of the toe part of the shoe. The camber material, which is a plastic alloy, takes the shape of the mold with heat and protects the toe shape and toe tips of the shoe.
MOSTRA - BASE:
It is the most important part where the foot placed on the sole lining touches and feels comfortable and comfortable by stepping on it. According to the style of the shoe;
SIt is made of materials such as Compressed sponge, P.u., Eva, Latex.
Various accessories are used according to the style of the shoe. Accessories; It consists of plastic, leather, artificial materials, textiles, stones, wood, beads and metal.